Northeastern China (known historically for a period as Manchuria and with a latitude of 41 to 47 degrees N) is a geographical region of China consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. Most of this area is less than 200 metres above sea level. Overall, this region produces a large proportion of the commercial food grains and economic crops that support all of China. In particular, the warmer, southern part has very warm to hot summer weather which permits crops such as maize and millet to be grown with high yields in the fertile soil, mainly from the alluvial deposits of the Huanghe, Huaihe and Haihe rivers.The annual precipitation is 600mm, mostly falling in the growing period. Soybeans, flax, wheat and barley are also very important. The region has large flocks of sheep, and pigsare abundant too. However, the cold and poorly drained northern region of Heilongjiang means agriculture is almost impossible, although the Amur River is a rich fishing ground here and the area also has abundant sheep.
As the climate continues to change, northeast China is likely to see an increase in temperature variability, storms, flooding, drought, heat waves and desertification, which has the potential to shorten or speed up the crop growth period. In response, the government and farmers have begun adjusting the composition and structure of crops and crop species to ensure successful harvests continue. Due to warming, northeast rice production has increased and winter wheat production has expanded northward.